Developing Green Infrastructure for Baghdad City

  • Najeel Kamal AbdulRazzaq
  • Mayasa Farkad Abdul Raheem
Keywords: Developing Green Infrastructure


The public green spaces in Baghdad city have an obvious shortage and doesn’t fulfill and meet the needs of the population and the required open space criteria, moreover these green spaces are disjointed, disconnected and does not function as a unified system, that is why it suffers from neglect which contributes to deterioration of the city’s environment and increasing air pollution.

    Human beings depended on nature into providing clean air and good health, with the growth of the population and the urban areas, there has been negative influence on the natural environmental system. A new term lately appeared “Green Infrastructure”especially in the developed countries (USA, UK and other countries in Europe), as one form of solutions to conserve the natural environmental system of green and open spaces. Consequently this thesis depended on this new green space approach to solve the green spaces problem in Baghdad city and suggested new sites in different locations in the city to be a new green spaces connected to the existing green spaces in Baghdad. This will increase the public green space areas, accessibility to these areas and social cohesion, it will also contribute to the improvement of the city’s environment by reducing air pollution and reducing air temperature especially during the long summer season. Other economic benefits could be achieved by planning for a connected network of green spaces in Baghdad city as well.


Download data is not yet available.


1- GIprovides green spaces which fulfill the city’s population required and the adapted criteria.

2- The natural orchards and public open spaces should be maintained and preserved. Moreover, it should be considered as a national heritage.

3- There are many vacant lands in Baghdad city which could be developed to be public green spaces.

4- New laws and legislations should be set to prevent the physical extends at the expense of the green spaces.

5- A network of pedestrian greenways should be planned which connect the small neighborhood parks with the city’s larger parks, which may increase its accessibility.

6- GIP should be considered in the future city planning strategies.

7- Encourage the establishment of community organizations that concerns about green spaces maintenance, conservation and constructions.

8- Increase the public awareness about the importance of the green spaces and the benefits they provides on the environmental, social and economic level.

- References:

1- Al-Zubaidy, Najwa A. (2005) Planning Criteria for the Green and Open Space in Baghdad City/Aadhamya case Study. Urban &Regional Planning Institut,University of Baghdad.

2- Baghdad Comprehensive Development Plan (2008)First Stage Primary Report A,B.

3- Benedict, M.A. and McMahon, E.T. (2002). Green Infrastructure: Smart Conservation for the 21st Century. Sprawlwatch Clearinghouse Monograph Series. The Conservation Fund, Washington DC.

4- Davies, C, McGloin, C, MacFarlane, R & Roe, M (2006) Green Infrastructure Planning Guide Project:Final Report. NECF, Annfield Plain.

5- Gardner, Jan H. , Gray, David P., Hagen, Kai J., Thompson, John. L., Jenkins,Charles A.& Young, Blaine R(2010) Fredrik County Future: A Comprehensive Plan for Fredrik County/ Maryland, Frederick County Division of Planning,Maryland.

6- Grant, Laura (2010) Multi-Functional Urban Green Infrastructure, A CIWEM Briefing Report.

7- Handley, John, Pauleit, Stephan, Slinn, Paul, Barber, Alan, Baker, Mark, Jones, Carys and Lindley, Sarah (2003) Accessible Natural Green Space Standards in Towns and Cities: A Review and Toolkit for their Implementation, English Nature Research Reports, Northminster House, Peterborough, UK.

8- Higher Commission for Buildings and Population Census 2009.

9- Ismaeel, Zeyad Ali (2011) The Public Parks in Baghdad Kinds , Properties and Requisites, Architecture Department, College of Engineering, University of Baghdad.

10- Kambites, Carol, Johnson, Phil, Lewis, Nick, Owen, Stephen, Short, Christopher (2006) Green Infrastructure Planning in the Swindon Urban-Rural Fringe, Final report to the Great Western Community Forest, Countryside & Community Research Unit, University of Gloucestershire, UK.

11- Mell, Ian (2008) Integrated and sustainable planning: can Green Infrastructure meet the needs of a changing urban environment? UK-Ireland Planning Research Conference: Sustainability, Space and Social Justice, Queen’s University, Belfast.

12- Mell, Ian (2010) Green infrastructure: concepts, perceptions and its use in spatial planning, School of Architecture, Planning and Landscape, Newcastle University, Newcastle.

13- Mohessen, Mohammed Kariem (2011) Effect Of Green AreasInDecisionsConfigure The Urban EnvironmentIn Hot Dry Areas,Architecture Department, College of Engineering, University of Baghdad.

14- Natural England &Landuse Consultants (2009) Green Infrastructure Guidance. Natural England, NE176.

15- North West Green Infrastructure Think Tank (2008) North West Green Infrastructure Guide Version: 1.1, UK.

16- Saratoga County Farmland and Open Space Preservation Committee (2006) Green Infrastructure Plan for Saratoga County, Behan Planning Associates, LLC, Saratoga.

17- Veal, A. J. (2008) Open Space Planning Standards in Australia: in Search of Origins, School of Leisure, Sport and Tourism, University of Technology, Sydney, Australia.

How to Cite
AbdulRazzaq, N. K. and Abdul Raheem, M. F. (2018) “Developing Green Infrastructure for Baghdad City”, Iraqi Journal of Architecture and Planning, 12(1). doi: 10.36041/iqjap.v12i1.174.
Environmental & Sustainable Design