Secure architectural design of commercial buildings

Terrorist and criminal aspects in shopping centers

  • Tuqa Mahmood Hameed
  • Abdullah Saadoon Salman Almaamouri
Keywords: Security, Commercial Buildings, Security Design

Abstract

The study deals with the concept of security as one of the concepts that affect the process of architectural design. Despite the development of architecture, one of its main objectives remains that the buildings are general and commercial, especially safe, regardless of the degree of urbanization or simplicity of the
building, especially in view of the increasing threat of terrorist and criminal threats, Especially when human threats are common and are practiced for various reasons in the 21st century. The research problem is thus (the emergence of the cognitive need to study the safe design of human threats to commercial shopping
centers). The research aims to clarify the principles of architectural design safe from human threats, as well as to know the impact of urban and architectural characteristics on the level of security of shopping malls commercial fortified, and accordingly the research assumes that the dimensions of safe design has a
positive impact in the sustainability of shopping malls. In order to address the research problem and achieve the objectives of the research and validation of the hypothesis was first built knowledge framework, and then a comprehensive theoretical framework for safe design in shopping centers extracted from the architectural proposals to reflect the final version in three main dimensions, namely: principles of safe design of the criminal act and mechanisms, and principles of safe design Of the terrorist act and its mechanisms, and the urban and architectural characteristics affecting security. The first is to control the security design process according to all of its indicators. The second is the difference in the design indicators according to the nature of the threat, but they are integrated together in order to achieve security for the shopping centers and
the safety of the pioneers .

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Al –Derry, Amina. 2014. "The impact of environmental threats on the reality of human security in Africa" (Ether altehdidat albeaiya ela waqia elemin ele ensani fi efriqya)[Arabic], electronic version at : http://thesis.univ-biskra.dz/1187/1/Scien_po_m7_2014.pdf. Al- Drazy, Alhan. 2013. "Urban Challenges in Residential Environment-An Analytical Study of Residential Safety and Security"( Altehediyat al hedheriya fi albeaa al sekeniya - Dirase tehlikya lilemin weleman alsekeni) [Arabic]," Master's Message, University of Technology, Department of Architecture, Baghdad, Iraq. Al-Harbi, Mohammed bin Mohammed. 2014. " A proposed strategy for integrating security agencies and educational institutions in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia" (Estratijeya muktrehe litehqiq al tekamul beyn al aghiza alemniya Welmuassesat al terbewiya fi almemlaka alarabia alsaudiya)[Arabic], electronic version at : https://repository.nauss.edu.sa/bitstream/handle/123456789/59971. AL-Tai, N. 2017. "Diana Karazon & Hussein Deek perform at the opening ceremony of Baghdad Mall" (Diana kroran we Husain aldek yetealkan fi hefil Eftitah Baghdad mall) [Arabic], article published on the website : http://www.almaghribtoday.net/319/203805. Abdul Karim, Nariman . 2014. "22 Information you do not know about the history of the construction of the World Trade Towers" (22 mealome la tearifha en tarihk enshaa burjay al tegara alaalemi) [Arabic], article published on the website : http://www.almasryalyoum.com/news/details/520695.

Amer, W. 2017. Three new malls opened this year (Ifttitah Thelath Molat Jedida Llaam Alhali) [Arabic], article published on the website : http://www.alsabaah.iq/ArticleShow.aspx?ID=135119. Amer, W. 2016. "Next year .. The opening of the project (mall Baghdad)" (Elaam al mukbil eftitah meshroa baghdad mall) [Arabic], article published on the website :

http://www.alsabaah.iq/ArticleShow.aspx?ID=124069. Atlas, Randall ."21st century security and CPTED: Designing for critical infrastructure protection and crime prevention", 2013,p14.

Baybutt, Paul. "Issues for security risk assessment in the process industries." Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 2017,p20-21. Brantingham, Patricia L., and Paul J. Brantingham. "Nodes, paths and edges: Considerations on the complexity of crime and the physical environment." Journal of Environmental Psychology13.1 (1993): 3-28. Cowlard, Adam & others " Fire safety design for tall buildings", journal of Procedia Engineering ,vol 62, 2013, p(169-181). Dickinson, E. Evitts, 2016."Designing for Security A modern-day search for theintersection of safety and beauty", article published on the website :

http://www.architectmagazine.com/aia-architect/aiafeature/designing-for-security_o. Ekblom, Paul. "Gearing up against crime.",2008,P.3-5. FEMA 459," primer for design of Incremental Protection for Existing Commercial Buildings from Terrorist Attack", Applied Technology Council (ATC), USA (2008). Fleissner, Dan, & Fred Heinzelmann. Crime prevention through environmental design and community policing. US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice, 1996,P2.

Hadi, Samir. 2016. "Outdoor &Indoor in the Commercial Centers in the Arabic & Islamic Architecture"( Eldakhil we alkharig fi elmerakiz altigariya fi elimara al erabiya we al islamiay) [Arabic]," Master's Message, University of Technology, Department of Architecture, Baghdad, Iraq. Hilary Clarke & Mary Ilyushina, 2018. " Fire exits blocked in Russian shopping mall devastated by blaze", article published on the website :

https://edition.cnn.com/2018/03/26/europe/russia-kemerovo-shopping-center-fire-intl/index.html Hinman, Eve. "Primer for design of commercial buildings to mitigate terrorist attacks." FEMA 427, Applied Technology Council (ATC), USA, 2003, P 40-41.

Joshua D. Freilich & Graeme R. Newman,2017. "Situational Crime Prevention", article published on the website: http://criminology.oxfordre.com/view/10.1093/acrefore/9780190264079.001.0001/acrefore-9780190264079-e-3.

Jusiewicz, David Joseph. "Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design: Crime Free Multi Housing In Arlington, Texas." ,2012,p9-24. Kamin, Blair. "Terror and wonder: Architecture in a tumultuous age", University of Chicago Press, 2010,p18-25. Katyal, Neal Kumar. "Architecture as crime control." The Yale Law Journal 111.5 (2002): 1039-1139. King, Martin Luther. "Security Guidance for Commercial Buildings",2012,P.7-19. Merry, Sally E. "Defensible space undefended: Social factors in crime control through environmental design." Urban Affairs Quarterly",1981, p412-416. Mohammed, N. 2017. Skiing in Iraq (Eltezeloh Ala Aljelid Fi Al iraq) [Arabic], article published on the website : https://arabic.sputniknews.com/arab_world/201709061026027992- .الت لج الجليد العرا - -

Mohd Lizam & Adebayo Adewole . "Towards a crime-Free Housing: CPTED versus CPSD", Journal of Environment and Earth Science, vol 5, no. 18, 2006, p(53-63). NIBS, 2017."SECURE / SAFE", article published on the website :

https://www.wbdg.org/design-objectives/secure-safe.

Rahmania, Mahsa, & Mahnaz M. Zarandib. "Determine the environmental factors influencing Increase security in residential design." Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences",no. 201, 2015,p. 235. Renfroe, Nancy A., and Joseph L. Smith. "Threat/vulnerability assessments and risk analysis." Applied Research Associates, Inc", 2010. Richard Paradis,"Balancing Security & Sustainability Goals to Achieve High Performance Buildings" ,2016,P.15.

Rigakos, George S., et al. "Soft targets?: a national survey of the preparedness of large retail malls to prevent and respond to terrorist attack after 9/11." Security Journal, 2009,p. 286-301. Tatarqa, A . 2016. " The concept of security" (Mefhom alamin) [Arabic], article published on the website : http://mawdoo3.com/.مفهوم الامن -

Velashani, Shokooh Torkyan, et al. "Effect of Physical Factors on the Sense of Security of the People in Isfahan's Traditional Bazaar." Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences", no. 201 ,2015, p. 167.

Yazdanfar, Seyed Abas Agha, & Nassim Nazari. "Proposed physical-environmental factors influencing personal and social security in residential areas." Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences 201, 2015,p. 225. York, Kevin. "Analysis of al-Shabaab’s Attack at the Westgate Mall in Nairobi, Kenya." New York Police Department. Online:http://www. scribd. com/doc/190795929/NYPD-Westgate-Report# dow, 2013,p9-11.

Published
2018-12-15
How to Cite
Hameed, T. M. and Almaamouri, A. S. S. (2018) “Secure architectural design of commercial buildings”, Iraqi Journal of Architecture and Planning, 17(2). doi: 10.36041/iqjap.v17i2.431.
Section
General Architecture: Theory, Design, Methods